Orthodontics: What is it and what types are there?

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Orthodontics is a treatment that is performed to gradually correct the position of the teeth so that they are placed in the most correct position, considering both the esthetic and functional aspects.

If you are considering the possibility of starting orthodontic treatment, it is necessary to know what types of orthodontics are currently available on the market, and since they solve different problems, it is necessary to analyze which one best suits your needs

This post will take us to know the details of orthodontics, so that we are able to make the best decisions in this particular.

What is orthodontics?

Orthodontics is a dental specialty that studies, prevents and corrects alterations in development, the shape of the dental arches and the position of the jaws, in order to restore the morphological and functional balance of the mouth and face.

Its objective is to procure the mobility of the teeth looking for their occlusal normalization, or the displacement of the whole dental set, to correct functional disorders of mastication.

What problems does orthodontics solve?

It is used to solve those problems related to the bite. Some of these are:

  • Open bite. It is the one in which one or more upper teeth fail to contact the lower teeth, and therefore, there is a space between the two dental lines that does not allow the mouth to close perfectly.
  • Crossbite. With this problem, the upper teeth protrude outside or inside with respect to the lower teeth
  • Covered bite. This refers to when the upper teeth cover more than half of the lower teeth when the mouth is closed.
  • Prognathism and retrognathism. This problem consists of a displacement of the lower jaw forward with respect to the upper jaw. As for retrognathism, it is the opposite of prognathism.
  • Dental crowding. It occurs when, due to lack of space or misalignment, the teeth are very crowded.

Types of orthodontics

In all types, prolonged force is applied to the displaced teeth until they reach their correct position. On the other hand, they all require the permanent assistance of an orthodontist to obtain satisfactory results.

Corrective orthodontics can be basically divided into two categories: fixed and removable. The following is an analysis of what each one consists of.

Fixed orthodontics

Fixed orthodontics are the best known and most common. As their name indicates, they cannot be removed by the patient at any time

There are several types of fixed orthodontics, depending on the material used and the place in the mouth where the appliance is placed. Among them we find:

  • Metal brackets. Although very basic, they help correct all kinds of alignment, bite and position problems
  • Ceramic brackets. The material used in this type of orthodontics is more esthetic. It can be placed only on the front teeth and can be combined with the traditional system
  • Sapphire brackets. These brackets are more resistant and less visible to the naked eye than metal brackets. They also cause less discomfort to the wearer due to their smaller size.
  • Lingual. It is an invisible type that is placed on the inside of the teeth, which reduces aesthetic problems. Each bracket is handmade using materials such as gold and tailored to the size of each tooth, based on an exact reproduction of the lingual surface on which it will be placed.

Removable Orthodontics

Removable orthodontics require follow-up by a specialized dentist, and are placed with materials and techniques that the patient can remove at home.

Invisalign invisible orthodontics is the most widely used by dentists worldwide. This technique uses state-of-the-art technology that adapts to each case. It consists of the placement of transparent aligners, almost imperceptible to others, which are renewed every two weeks, approximately

Each aligner sleeve is made to perform a specific and progressive movement of the patient’s teeth and thus place them in the position that is needed

As they are removable, the wearer will be able to eat normally, and will be able to perform oral hygiene more easily.

Advantages and disadvantages of all types of orthodontics

When examining the different types of orthodontics, someone may be inclined to go for the one they consider most aesthetically pleasing or the one that is most effective.

Analyzing the pros and cons of each will help in making the best decision.

Advantages of the types of orthodontics

Among the advantages of the different types of orthodontics, we can list the following:

  • Metal. It is the most economical of all types of orthodontics and, in general, the one that solves the most problems of dental malposition and is the least prone to breakage of the appliance
  • Ceramic. It is more aesthetic, since the brackets closely resemble the color of the tooth.
  • Sapphire. After metal brackets, they are the most resistant to breakage. They are also less visible than metal brackets
  • Lingual. This type of orthodontics best solves problems of displaced teeth or teeth of different heights, and reduces the risk of suffering small injuries in the mouth and its capacity.
  • Invisalign. It has many advantages: they are not visible, they can be removed at will, you can do better dental hygiene and it is very comfortable.

Disadvantages of the types of orthodontics

Among the disadvantages of these different orthodontic techniques, we can point out the following:

  • Metal. It can be very uncomfortable at first, and since it is the most visible, it is the least esthetic.
  • Ceramic. They are more fragile than sapphire brackets and metal brackets.
  • Sapphire. They are larger than metal brackets, although they are less visible, cost more and require more treatment time. In addition, they are not recommended for teeth that are not very white.
  • Lingual. Oral hygiene is more difficult than with other types of orthodontics and treatment may take longer
  • Invisalign. It is a very expensive treatment, on the other hand, there are certain problems of rotation or malocclusion, which this type of orthodontics cannot solve

We all want to have perfect teeth to smile with confidence, this could be the key to achieve it.

Isaac Escudero Bermudez
Isaac Escudero Bermudezhttps://www.google.com/search?kgmid=/g/11p5jlt4n9
Degree in Dentistry from the University of Valencia and Master's Degree from the University of Alcalá. Doctorate and committed to Human Health

Aunque pueda contener afirmaciones, datos o apuntes procedentes de instituciones o profesionales sanitarios y la información contenida en PharmaSalud esté redactada por profesionales en medicina, recomendamos al lector que cualquier duda relacionada con la salud sea consultada con un profesional del ámbito sanitario.

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